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==Table 8==
 
==Table 8==

Revision as of 05:19, 5 September 2009

Table 4

Table 4: Reference limits and partition values of left ventricular mass and geometry
  Women Men
Reference
range
Mildly
abnormal
Moderately
abnormal
Severely
abnormal
Reference
range
Mildly
abnormal
Moderately
abnormal
Severely
abnormal
Linear Method
LV mass, g 67–162 163–186 187–210 ≥211 88–224 225–258 259–292 ≥293
LV mass/BSA, g/m2 43–95 96–108 109–121 122 49–115 116–131 132–148 149
LV mass/height, g/m 41–99 100–115 116–128 ≥129 52–126 127–144 145–162 ≥163
LV mass/height2,7, g/m2,7 18–44 45–51 52–58 ≥59 20–48 49–55 56–63 ≥64
Relative wall thickness, cm 0.22–0.42 0.43–0.47 0.48–0.52 ≥0.53 0.24–0.42 0.43–0.46 0.47–0.51 ≥0.52
Septal thickness, cm 0.6–0.9 1.0–1.2 1.3–1.5 1.6 0.6–1.0 1.1–1.3 1.4–1.6 1.7
Posterior wall thickness, cm 0.6–0.9 1.0–1.2 1.3–1.5 1.6 0.6–1.0 1.1–1.3 1.4–1.6 1.7
2D Method
LV mass, g 66–150 151–171 172–182 >193 96–200 201–227 228–254 >255
LV mass/BSA, g/m2 44–88 89–100 101–112 ≥113 50–102 103–116 117–130 ≥131
  • BSA, Body surface area; LV, left ventricular; 2D, 2-dimensional.
  • Bold italic values: Recommended and best validated.

Table 5

Table 5 Reference limits and partition values of left ventricular size
  Women Men
Reference
range
Mildly
abnormal
Moderately
abnormal
Severely
abnormal
Reference
range
Mildly
abnormal
Moderately
abnormal
Severely
abnormal
LV dimension
LV diastolic diameter 3.9–5.3 5.4–5.7 5.8–6.1 ≥6.2 4.2–5.9 6.0–6.3 6.4–6.8 ≥6.9
LV diastolic diameter/BSA, cm/m2 2.4–3.2 3.3–3.4 3.5–3.7 ≥3.8 2.2–3.1 3.2–3.4 3.5–3.6 ≥3.7
LV diastolic diameter/height, cm/m 2.5–3.2 3.3–3.4 3.5–3.6 ≥3.7 2.4–3.3 3.4–3.5 3.6–3.7 ≥3.8
LV volume
LV diastolic volume, mL 56–104 105–117 118–130 ≥131 67–155 156–178 179–201 ≥201
LV diastolic volume/BSA, mL/m2 35–75 76–86 87–96 97 35–75 76–86 87–96 97
LV systolic volume, mL 19–49 50–59 60–69 ≥70 22–58 59–70 71–82 ≥83
LV systolic volume/BSA, mL/m2 12–30 31–36 37–42 43 12–30 31–36 37–42 43
  • BSA, body surface area; LV, left ventricular.
  • Bold italic values: Recommended and best validated.

Table 6

Table 6 Reference limits and values and partition values of left ventricular function
  Women Men
Reference range Mildly abnormal Moderately abnormal Severely abnormal Reference range Mildly abnormal Moderately abnormal Severely abnormal
Linear method
Endocardial fractional shortening, % 27–45 22–26 17–21 ≤16 25–43 20–24 15–19 ≤14
Midwall fractional shortening, % 15–23 13–14 11–12 ≤10 14–22 12–13 10–11 ≤10
2D Method
Ejection fraction, % 55 45–54 30–44 <30 55 45–54 30–44 <30
  • 2D, Two-dimensional.
  • Bold italic values: Recommended and best validated.

Table 7

Table 7 Reference limits and partition values of right ventricular and pulmonary artery size
  Reference range Mildly abnormal Moderately abnormal Severely abnormal
RV dimensions (Figure 12)
Basal RV diameter (RVD 1), cm 2.0–2.8 2.9–3.3 3.4–3.8 ≥3.9
Mid-RV diameter (RVD 2), cm 2.7–3.3 3.4–3.7 3.8–4.1 ≥4.2
Base-to-apex length (RVD 3), cm 7.1–7.9 8.0–8.5 8.6–9.1 ≥9.2
RVOT diameters (Figure 13, 14)
Above aortic valve (RVOT 1), cm 2.5–2.9 3.0–3.2 3.3–3.5 ≥3.6
Above pulmonic valve (RVOT 2), cm 1.7–2.3 2.4–2.7 2.8–3.1 ≥3.2
PA diameter
Below pulmonic valve (PA 1), cm 1.5–2.1 2.2–2.5 2.6–2.9 ≥3.0
  • RV, Right ventricular; RVOT, right ventricular outflow tract; PA, pulmonary artery.
  • Data from Foale et al.76

Table 8

Table 8 Reference limits and partition values of right ventricular size and function as measured in the apical 4-chamber view
Reference range Mildly abnormal Moderately abnormal Severely abnormal
RV diastolic area, cm2 11–28 29–32 33–37 ≥38
RV systolic area, cm2 7.5–16 17–19 20–22 ≥23
RV fractional area change, % 32–60 25–31 18–24 ≤17
  • RV, Right ventricular.
  • Data from Weyman.80

Table 9

Table 9 Reference limits and partition values for left atrial dimensions/volumes
  Women Men
Reference range Mildly abnormal Moderately abnormal Severely abnormal Reference range Mildly abnormal Moderately abnormal Severely abnormal
Atrial dimensions
LA diameter, cm 2.7–3.8 3.9–4.2 4.3–4.6 ≥4.7 3.0–4.0 4.1–4.6 4.7–5.2 ≥5.2
LA diameter/BSA, cm/m2 1.5–2.3 2.4–2.6 2.7–2.9 ≥3.0 1.5–2.3 2.4–2.6 2.7–2.9 ≥3.0
RA minor-axis dimension, cm 2.9–4.5 4.6–4.9 5.0–5.4 ≥5.5 2.9–4.5 4.6–4.9 5.0–5.4 ≥5.5
RA minor-axis dimension/BSA, cm/m2 1.7–2.5 2.6–2.8 2.9–3.1 ≥3.2 1.7–2.5 2.6–2.8 2.9–3.1 ≥3.2
Atrial area
LA area, cm2 ≤20 20–30 30–40 >40 ≤20 20–30 30–40 >40
Atrial volumes
LA volume, mL 22–52 53–62 63–72 ≥73 18–58 59–68 69–78 ≥79
LA volume/BSA, mL/m2 22 ± 6 29–33 34–39 40 22 ± 6 29–33 34–39 40
  • BSA, Body surface area; LA, left atrial; RA, right atrial.
  • Bold italic values: Recommended and best validated.