P Wave Morphology

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«Step 4:Heart axis Step 6: QRS morphology»

Author(s) J.S.S.G. de Jong, MD
Moderator J.S.S.G. de Jong, MD
some notes about authorship

The p wave morphology can reveal right or left atrial stretch.

The P-wave morphology is best determined in leads II and V1 during sinus rhythm.

The normal P wave

Normal sinus rhythm with a positive p wave in leads I, II en AVF and a biphasic p wave in V1.

Characteristics of a normal p wave:[1]

  • The maximal height of the P wave is 2.5 mm in leads II and / or III
  • The p wave is positive in II and AVF, and bifasic in V1
  • The p wave duration is usually shorter than 0.12 seconds

Elevation or depression of the PTa segment (the part between the p wave and the beginning of the QRS complex) can result from Atrial infarction or pericarditis.

If the p-wave is enlarged, the atria are enlarged.


  1. Spodick DH, Raju P, Bishop RL, and Rifkin RD. Operational definition of normal sinus heart rate. Am J Cardiol. 1992 May 1;69(14):1245-6. DOI:10.1016/0002-9149(92)90947-w | PubMed ID:1575201 | HubMed [Spodick]