MI Diagnosis in LBBB or paced rhythm
In case of a left bundle branch block (LBBB), infarct diagnosis based on the ECG is difficult. The baseline ST segments and T waves tend to be shifted in a discordant direction with LBBB, which can mask or mimic acute myocardial infarction. However, serial ECGs may show a moving ST segment during ischemia secondary to dynamic supply versus demand characteristics. A new LBBB is always pathological and can be a sign of myocardial infarction. The criteria (Sgarbossa ) that can be used in case of a LBBB and suspicion of infarction are:
- ST elevation > 1mm in leads with a positive QRS complex (concordance in ST deviation) (score 5)
- ST depression > 1 mm in V1-V3 (concordance in ST deviation) (score 3)
- ST elevation > 5 mm in leads with a negative QRS complex (inappropriate discordance in ST deviation) (score 2). This criterium is sensitive, but not specific for ischemia in LBBB. It is however associated with a worse prognosis, when present in LBBB during ischemia.
At a score-sum of 3, these criteria have a specificity of 90% for detecting a myocardial infarction.
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