Difference between revisions of "Electrolyte Disorders"

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==Hypercalcemia==
 
==Hypercalcemia==
Hypercalcemia results in a faster repolarization. Characteristics of hypercalcemia:
+
Hypercalcemia, high blood calcium, speeds repolarization. Characteristics of hypercalcemia:
 
*Mild: broad based tall peaking T waves
 
*Mild: broad based tall peaking T waves
 
*Severe: extremely wide QRS, low R wave, disappearance of p waves, tall peaking T waves.
 
*Severe: extremely wide QRS, low R wave, disappearance of p waves, tall peaking T waves.
  
 
==Hypocalcemia==
 
==Hypocalcemia==
ECG-characteristics of hypocalcemia:
+
ECG-characteristics of hypocalcemia, low blood calcium:
 
*Narrowing of the QRS complex
 
*Narrowing of the QRS complex
 
*Reduced PR interval
 
*Reduced PR interval
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==Hyperkalemia==
 
==Hyperkalemia==
ECG characteristics of hyperkalemia:
+
ECG characteristics of hyperkalemia, high blood potassium:
 
*Tall peaked T waves
 
*Tall peaked T waves
 
*Flattening p-waves. In extreme hyperkalemia p-waves may disappear altogether.
 
*Flattening p-waves. In extreme hyperkalemia p-waves may disappear altogether.

Revision as of 20:29, 22 January 2010

Author(s) J.S.S.G. de Jong
Moderator T.T. Keller
Supervisor
some notes about authorship

Hypercalcemia

Hypercalcemia, high blood calcium, speeds repolarization. Characteristics of hypercalcemia:

  • Mild: broad based tall peaking T waves
  • Severe: extremely wide QRS, low R wave, disappearance of p waves, tall peaking T waves.

Hypocalcemia

ECG-characteristics of hypocalcemia, low blood calcium:

  • Narrowing of the QRS complex
  • Reduced PR interval
  • T wave flattening and inversion
  • Prolongation of the QT-interval
  • Prominent U-wave
  • Prolonged ST and ST-depression

Hyperkalemia

ECG characteristics of hyperkalemia, high blood potassium:

  • Tall peaked T waves
  • Flattening p-waves. In extreme hyperkalemia p-waves may disappear altogether.
  • Prolonged depolarization leading to QRS widening (nonspecific intraventricular conduction defect) sometimes > 0.20 seconds

At concentrations > 7.5 mmol/L atrial and ventricular fibrillation can occur.


Hypokalemia

Hypokalemia, low blood potassium, results in:

  • ST depression and flattening of the T wave
  • Negative T waves
  • A U-wave may be visible